Answer: groups chained together while migrating to the Deep South
slave coffles
A Slave Coffle at Rest East Africa Upper Nile Region 1840s Captioned Halte d'une caravane d'esclaves (A stop/resting place for a slave coffle) shows a group of enslaved Africans linked by wooden poles the so-called Goree or Slave-Stick; in center the Arab slave trader is smoking a hookah or waterpipe.
Slave coffles were common sites in the South. The overland slave trade generally developed from Tidewater Virginia and the Carolinas where there were slave breeding operations to the highly profitable plantations of the Deep South (Georgia Alabama Mississipi and Louisiana).
More Slave Coffles images
A coffle of slaves being marched from Virginia west into Tennessee c. 1850. (Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Williamsburg Virginia) By Edward Ball;...
A Witness to a Kentucky Slave Coffle In the Rev. John Rankin's Letters on American Slavery published in 1836 he included in his footnotes a letter written in 1824 from a fellow minister James H. Dickey that described the latter's eyewitness of slave coffle led by Bourbon County slave trader Edward Stone. It is as follows:
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